Wednesday, March 9, 2016

Ivan Illich quotes from Medical Nemesis - Limits to Medicine - The Expropriation of Health - an artist's perspective in pictures

This section will be added to as time goes by, with art, cartoons and photos by Emma Holister

SCROLL DOWN for more Ivan Illich QUOTES (Artist: 'wot ivan showed me from my mountain, in pictures . . .')

p 53 The Medicalization of Life

"...some critics recommend enlightened cost consciousness on the part of consumers; (55) . . .
. . others, not trusting the self-control of laymen, recommend mechanisms to heighten the cost consciousness of producers.(56)"

Physicians, they argue, would prescribe more responsibly and less wantonly if they were paid (as are general practitioners in Britain) on a 'capitation' basis that provided a fixed amount for the maintenance of their clients rather than a fee for service. 

But like all other such remedies, capitation enlarges the iatrogenic fascination with the health supply. 

People forgo their own lives to get as much treatment as they can.

In England the National Health Service has tried, albeit unsuccessfully, to ensure that cost inflation will be less plagued by conspicuous flimflam.(57)

The national Health Service Act of 1946 established access to healthcare resources for all those in need as a human right.

The need was assumed to be finite and quantifiable, the ballot box the best place to decide the total budget for health, and doctors the only ones able to determine the resources that would satisfy the need of each patient. 

But need as assessed by medical practitioners has proved to be just as extensive in England as anywhere else. 

The fundamental hope for the success of the English health-care system lay in the belief in the ability of the English to ration supply."


55) John and Sylvia Jewkes, Value for Money in Medicine (Oxford: Blackwell, 1963, pp. 30-7, argue: 'It may be that, as electorates become more sophisticated, they will recognize they have in fact to pay for free services'; also that relatively cheap prevention through more healthy everyday habits is more effective than purchase of repairs.

56) Fuchs, in Who Shall Live?, chap. 3, argues for institutional licensing as a substitute for the licensing of individuals.  Under such a system, medical-care institutions would be licenses by the state and would then be free to hire and use personnel as each saw fit.  This system would deploy resources more efficiently and proved more upward job mobility.  But the physician's control over care produced and delivered by others would be weakened.

57) For a bibliography on socialized medicine in Britain, consult Freidson, Profession of Medicine, p. 34 n.9"

more pages 

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Thursday, March 3, 2016

Ivan Illich quotes: Deschooling Society_ivan illich illustrated

Quotes from Deschooling Society by Ivan Illich  

An artist's perspective in pictures 'ivan illich illustrated' 

This section will be added to as time goes by, with art, cartoons and photos


Art by Emma Holister

The New Alienation


"If we add those engaged in full time teaching to those in full time attendance, we realize that this so-called superstructure has become society's major employer.   In the United States sixty-two million are in school and eighty million at work elsewhere . . ."

"Only if school is understood as an industry can revolutionary strategy be planned realistically.  . . .

Alienation, in the traditional scheme, was a direct consequence of work's becoming wage-labor which deprived man of the opportunity to create and be recreated.

Now young people are prealienated by schools that isolate them while they pretend to be both producers and consumers of their own knowledge, which is conceived of as a commodity put on the market in school. 

School makes alienation preparatory to life, thus depriving education of reality and work of creativity."  

"School prepares for the alienating institutionalization of life by teaching the need to be taught.

Once this lesson is learned, people lose their incentive to grow in independence; they no longer find relatedness attractive, and close themselves off to the surprises which life offers when it is not predetermined by institutional definition. 

And school directly or indirectly employs a major portion of the population.  School either keeps people for life or makes sure that they will fit into some institution.

The New World Church is the knowledge industry, both purveyor of opium and the workbench during an increasing number of the years of an individual's life."  

Deschooling is, therefore, at the root of any movement for human liberation."

Rebirth of Epimethean Man


"Our society resembles the ultimate machine which I once saw in a New York toy shop . . . 

. . . It was a metal casket which, when you touched a switch, snapped open to reveal a mechanical hand . . . 

. . . Chromed fingers reached out for the lid, pulled it down, and locked it from the inside.  

It was a box; you expected to be able to take something out of it; yet all it contained was a mechanism for closing the cover. 

This contraption is the opposite of Pandora's 'box'.

The original Pandora, the All-Giver, was an Earth goddess in prehistoric matriarchal Greece.  She let all ills escape from her amphora (pythos).  But she closed the lid before Hope could escape.

The history of modern man begins with the degradation of Pandora's myth and comes to an end in the self-sealing casket.

It is the history of the Promethean endeavor to forge institutions in order to corral each of the rampant ills. 

It is the history of fading hope and rising expectations . . . 

To understand what this means we must rediscover the distinction between hope and expectation. 

Hope, in its strong sense, means trusting faith in the goodness of nature, while expectation, as I will use it here, means reliance on results which are planned and controlled by man. . . .

Hope centers desire on a person from whom we await a gift. 

Expectation looks forward to satisfaction from a predictable process which will produce what we have the right to claim.  The promethean ethos has now eclipsed hope." 

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